Many of the challenges regarding conservation in Africa are common to all countries. William Lloyd suggested as far back as 1883 that self-interested parties would over-exploit a common resource (Krosby, 2013). This is a threatening reality when it comes to conservation of wildlife anywhere, and indicates the need for incentives on the level of the individual to abide by the rules (Mwakaje).
|Kikuyu Woman, Kenya. (Original photo)|
In order to have effective systems for incentives, there first needs to be a fairly high level of law and order. Much of Africa suffers from corrupt governance, lacking in transparency and accountability (Mwakaje). Paired with this is a tendency for the bulk of the cost of conservation to fall upon the shoulders of local communities, while the benefits are either relatively insufficient or reaped elsewhere (Mwakaje). Designation of protected areas can be inequitable, for example it may lead to loss of traditional access rights and employment opportunities, which may in turn lead to increasing rather than decreasing pressure on the resources as users resort to illegal activities (Mwakaje). The money from wildlife parks that does go to local communities is often funneled through the system of bad governance- thus, not all of the money reaches the intended recipients (Mwakaje).
|Masai Warriors, Kenya,.|
Another difficult aspect of conservation in Africa is the social benefit of certain ecologically damaging activities, such as hunting. Scientists and conservation activists don't always take into account the cultural value of these practices, and how that element can potentially change the way that local people react to proposed collaboration efforts regarding conservation (Waylen).
|Effects of Poaching|
|Uganda (Original Figure)|